Feb 262012
 

Sourdough recipe

and starter instructions

What is sourdough?

A true sourdough starter is nothing more than the flour and milk or water which sits at room temperature for several days and catches live yeast bacteria from the air. 
According to Wikipedia;
“sourdough is a dough containing a Lactobacillus culture, usually in symbiotic combination with yeasts. It is one of two principal means of biological leavening in bread baking, along with the use of cultivated forms of yeast”  read more.
Sourdough starter can be stored in the fridge and becomes relatively dormant. Clear, amber colored liquid will accumulate on the surface of the starter. This liquid contains 12% to 14% alcohol. When yeast is in contact with air, it produces carbon dioxide; when it’s not, it produces alcohol. When you blend the alcohol back into the starter, it helps produce the unique flavor you find in good sourdough breads.
For milder flavor, you can pour off some of the alcohol if you wish although this will thicken the starter requiring a bit more liquid to return it to its “pancake batter” consistency. The alcohol itself dissipates during the baking process.

Why bother with sourdough?

Breads made from sourdough have an assertive tang and keep longer than other home baked breads.

Hints and tips for keeping sourdough

  • Working with a sourdough starter can be very time consuming. Especially if you follow instructions that tell you to feed them everyday.   If you don’t use the starter everyday, then store it, covered with plastic wrap, in the fridge until ready to use. When you want to use it,  then remove it from the fridge and let it come to room temperature (e.g. overnight on worktop). Then feed it with 1 cup flour and 1 cup warm water. Let this sit 8 hours or preferably overnight. It is now ready to use in sourdough recipes.
  •  Always use the sourdough when it is “hungry”, having not been fed for 24 hours or so.
  •  Each day it is kept out of the fridge it will need feeding with flour and water (so use some, and feed the remaining portion ready for tomorrow). If you don’t want to use it the next day, feed it and store it in the fridge, where it won’t need feeding. 
  •  Sourdough starters can last for decades, and seem to be resistant to contamination. This may be due to an antibiotic action similar to that of the moulds in cheeses such as Stilton and Roquefort.
  •   Each time you make a loaf, you will have leftover starter. This can be kept in the fridge, feeding it every 4 days to keep it alive, and will improve in flavour. Any starter you do not need or want can be discarded, or given to a friend.  Click here for instructions for a German Sourdough Friendship Cake.
  •  If your starter ever changes colors, to purple, for example, discard and start another one.
  • Stirring the starter invigorates the yeast and expels some of the alcohol.
  • After removing a portion from the starter, the starter must be “fed”. Simply add equal portions of milk or water and flour as was used. For example, if you used 1 cup of starter, replace it with 1 cup of water and 1 cup of bread flour.
  • Always use the same kind of flour. If you used bread flour in your original starter, use bread flour to feed it. Also, alternate between milk and water for each feeding. Since your original liquid ingredient was milk, the first liquid feeding should be with water. If you forget which you used last, that’s okay, but try to alternate at least every other time.
  • You must use a portion of the starter at least once a week. If you choose not to bake sourdough breads that often, then remove a cup of your starter and feed it as though you used some during the week. If this is not done, your starter will turn rancid and have to be replaced. Should you be away on vacation or otherwise not able to tend to the starter, freeze it. Upon your return, thaw it in the refrigerator and then remove a portion and feed it as soon as you are able.
  • If the bread is getting too sour for you, feed with water more often than milk.
  • For tap water, substitute water from cooking potatoes. It contains nutrients which any kind of yeast loves and along with making the yeast happy, it creates great flavor in bread.

How to make sourdough starter from scratch  – the Hugh Fearnly- Whittingstall way.

Hugh’s sourdough loaf recipe  which comes highly recomended.
“In a large bowl, mix the flour for the starter with enough warm water to make a batter roughly the consistency of double cream. Beat it well to incorporate some air, drop in the rhubarb, then cover with a lid or cling film and leave somewhere fairly warm. A warm kitchen is fine, or a coolish airing cupboard. Check it every few hours until you can see that fermentation has begun – signalled by the appearance of bubbles on the surface (it can actually smell quite unpleasant and acrid at this stage but don’t worry, it will mellow as it matures). The time it takes for your starter to begin fermenting can vary hugely – it could be a few hours or a few days. But make your starter with wholegrain flour (which offers more for the yeast to get its teeth into), keep it warm and draught free and you should be rewarded with the first signs of life within 24 hours.
Your starter now needs regular feeding. Begin by whisking in another 100g or so of fresh flour and enough water to retain that thick batter consistency. You can switch to using cool water and to keeping the starter at normal room temperature – though nowhere too cold or draughty. Leave it again, then, 24 hours or so later, scoop out and discard half the starter and stir in another 100g flour and some more water. repeat this discard-and-feed routine every day, maintaining the sloppy consistency and keeping your starter at room temperature, and after 7-10 days you should have something that smells good – sweet, fruity, yeasty, almost boozy – having lost any harsh, acrid edge. But don’t be tempted to bake a loaf until it’s been on the go for at least a week.
If you’re going to bake bread every day or two, maintain your starter in this way, keeping it at room temperature, feeding it daily, and taking some of it out whenever you want to create a sponge.” read more

Links to information used in this article:

 February 26, 2012  post archive, recipe Tagged with: ,
Feb 252012
 

Wwoofing

World Wide Opportunities On Organic Farms

We have been approved for wwoofers and have availablility from

May – September check out this website to find out more.

To see our details click here or search for Fife Smallholder.

why WWOOF?

  • reconnect to the soil, get your hands dirty and get grounded
  • reskill and help revitalise ancient knowledge
  • gain first-hand experience of organic and biodynamic farming, growing, harvesting, preserving and animal husbandry
  • meet – and find inspiration in – likeminded people; both the hosts you visit and other WWOOFers you meet there
  • rediscover the relationships between local food production, social community and spirit
  • taste totally fresh produce
  • experience new places and acquire a wealth of experience for a very small financial outlay
  • get lots of interesting stories to tell!
  • walk the talk – try it out for yourself

How it works

Read this article that gives a good description.  If you are thinking about being hosts and want to talk it through contact us.

Other links:

 February 25, 2012  post archive, smallholder, volunteering Tagged with: , ,
Feb 212012
 

Hedgehog found during the day

We recently found a hedgehog on our smallholding.  This is unusual because it was found during the day, and in February.  In the Autumn we discovered a dead hedgehog  -(that we had also seen during the day)- which we now  know was probably underweight.  We therefore resolved to actively do something to help this little one.

If you have found a hedgehog here is a website with links to organisations who will care for a hedgehog who needs help. 

Weight of a hedgehog is crucial to its survival and your intervention

The minimum weight for a hedgehog through the winter is 450gms (1lb) and any hedgehog below this weight is likely to have problems. If you find a hedgehog that you are concerned about this will indicate to you whether it may need some assistance.  Although 450gms is the minimum weight, many hedgehog carers prefer to get their autumn juveniles up to 600gms (1lb 6oz) or more to give them an extra edge. Autumn juveniles are youngsters found alone under this critical weight after the end of September, and will need extra help even if it is just additional feeding in the garden.

 call the British Hedgehog Preservation Society for further advice on 01584 890 801

Initial caring advice for a vulnerable hedgehog

If the hoglet is very young (under 160gms/6 oz) it should be given extra warmth with a hot water bottle wrapped in towelling or a blanket, or a heated pad. It should be placed in a box with plenty of clean, fresh straw, crumpled newspapers or old towelling for bedding. Out buildings are fine if heated but don’t put hedgehogs on a metal grid or wire floor or straight onto concrete – they have sensitive feet and cold will permeate through.

Why is ‘my’ hedgehog ‘sunbathing’ or staggering?

Sick, injured and orphaned hedgehogs are very susceptible to hypothermia. When they become cold they are lethargic and go off their food. This makes them even colder! The staggering (or wobbling and rocking) is a sign of hypothermia, and they may look like they are sunbathing as they spread themselves out in the sun in an attempt to get some heat into their bodies.

When they are spotted in this state they need help quickly. They should be taken indoors on a box with a well-wrapped hot water bottle placed underneath them. The bottle must not be allowed to go cold or it will undo the good it has done. Once you have the hedgehog settled and warming up, call the British Hedgehog Preservation Society on 01584 890 801 for further advice.

Food for hedgehogs

Wild food 

In the wild, damp grassland is the hedgehog’s favourite hunting ground. Hedgehogs will eat the following:

  • Beetles
  • Caterpillars
  • Earthworms
  • Birds Eggs
  • Small Mammals
  • Slugs
  • Snails
  • Millipedes
  • Earwigs
  • Bees
  • Birds

Human feeding of hedgehogs

If feeding wild hedgehogs in your garden then a shallow (non-tipping) dish of chicken-based cat/dog food, along with a shallow dish of water, put out each night will help them enormously. A good hedgehog diet would include tinned pet food, chopped peanuts (not whole ones) or crunchy peanut butter, raw or cooked meat leftovers, muesli and a small amount of vegetables. Hedgehogs should not be fed on bread and cows milk if they are captive and cannot find other foods; this gives them diarrhoea . Other food you can feed them includes:

  • based pet food (not in gravy)
  • cooked chicken (excluding bones)
  • minced beef or lamb
  • a little bran or unsweetened moistened muesli cereal
  • banana
  • raisins
  • unsweetened crushed digestive biscuits
  • dry cat or hedgehog biscuits

Fresh water should ALWAYS be available. Cows milk SHOULD NOT be given.

Hedgehogs are full of fleas and other parasites 

This is the first thought of many people, and may put them off helping a sickly hedgehog.  If it is necessary to remove fleas from a hedgehog, then a commercially prepared mite powder suitable for caged birds or chickens can be dusted amongst the spines (taking care to avoid the eyes of the animal) as an adequate treatment, but do not use on very young hedgehogs.

Blood-sucking ticks are often found on hedgehogs and after taking their fill of blood, will drop off the host in order to complete their life cycle. Removal of these ticks is a difficult task but can be accomplished by dousing the ticks in olive/almond/cooking oil. Removing these ticks with forceps is to be avoided as the inexperienced may leave the mouthparts and head in the skin that may turn septic.

Will my dog/cat get fleas from the hedgehog?

Hedgehog fleas are host specific, which means they will not usually live on any animal other than a hedgehog. Not all hedgehogs have fleas.

Hibernation

Hedgehogs avoid the coldest times of winter by hibernating, usually between November and early April, depending on the weather. If it is warm enough and there is enough food, hedgehogs do not hibernate at all. click here for a link to a hibernation leaflet.  Or if you want information about a specific time of year or month then here is a good link to the hedgehog year. Information sites used in the construction of this post:

 

Feb 092012
 

Learn to talk like a real farmer

If like me you call your sheep ‘boys’ and ‘girls’, and struggle when you talk to a farmer or staff at the agricultural feed merchant.  Then here is a few of the terms relating to sheep adapted for smallholders from the website Farm Direct:

Bagging Up

This is the common term when a pregnant ewe is getting near her time for lambing and is starting to expand her udder with milk.  They drink a lot of water at this time.

Baler Twine

This is the twine used to bind square bales of hay, a popular thing with smallholders who have livestock. At first the twine accumulates over the winter as it is removed to access the hay, and slowly over the summer the twine disapears. Not by magic, but by necessity.  Baler twine is the handiest thing you will have around the smallholding and is used (always on a temporary basis you understand) in a myriad of ways.  Every farmer has baler twine somewhere holding together hurdles or as temporary hinges, or woven through holes in livestock fencing.  There are 101 uses of baler twine and some day I will list them all.  In the meantime I urge you not to throw away your baler twine, it will come in handy at some point.

Cast or ‘draft’ ewe

These are older hill sheep that are sold on for continued breeding in less harsh, lowland conditions. These can sometimes be a cheap way for a smallholder to start in sheep (make sure you check udders/teats and teeth first though).

Cull ewes

These are female sheep that  have reached the end of their productive life on the farm. They can often be sold for slaughter as mutton.

Dag

Wool clogged with dung. Usually forms teardrop shaped pendants dangling under the tail and around the anus of sheep. If allowed to remain dags may become infested with fly strike maggots which in some cases may go on to infest the flesh of the living sheep. A dirty bum can be linked to worms which should be treated.  

Dagging

Is the process of trimming away dags.  An unpleasant job if the dung has had time to ferment.

Feed Blocks

High energy feed blocks can be a convenient, palatable source of energy and minerals, particularly during periods when grass supply is limited or of poor quality. Blocks are labour saving and can provide a source of energy and protein during tupping or lambing. They tend to be expensive per unit of energy or protein compared with concentrate and there may be a large variation in the amount each ewe consumes. Always check the ingredient list and energy content of feed blocks, as there can be a wide variation in their quality.

 Fodder

Fodder or forage is a mixture of planted vegetation that’s used to feed livestock. Fodder can be grown outside in fields (e.g. turnips or swede) where you turn out the sheep to eat the fodder whilst it is still in the ground or indoors through a hydroponics system that is then harvested.  The final option is to harvest fodder (e.g. comfrey leaves and dry).

Fodder beet

A type of sugar beet grown for feeding to cattle or sheep especially in winter.

Forage

Is plant material that animals consume as food; e.g. hay is a stored forage. For a good article on what sheep need in winter forage click here.  Alternative forage or fodder to hay includes; comfrey leaves.  Brassica fodder crops such as kale, forage rape, grazing turnips, stubble turnips, swedes and new rape/kale hybrids.

 Gelt

An adult, female sheep that is not in lamb when others are. Often she has been kept away from the ram because of problems at a previous lambing. Gelt ewes are fattened for sale to the meat trade at a time when lamb is in short supply.

Gimmer

A female sheep that has been weaned but not yet sheared. i.e. about 6 months to 15 months old and has not yet borne a lamb.  See also hogg.

Grass ley

Grass that is sown in the expectation that it will only last for a limited period before being ploughed up. There are short-term leys (1 or 2 years), medium-term leys (up to 5 years) and long-term leys (5-7 years). Beyond that the land will probably be permanent pasture.

Hay

Dried grass used for animal feed.  It is cut, left to dry in the field and then baled. It is fed to livestock through the winter when fresh grass not available. Smallholders will often use this as they can get it in small square bales that are easier to handle and store.

smallholder sized hay bales

However this is the most expensive way to feed your sheep.  If you have the storage facilities it is cheaper to get a round bale which is the equivalent to 10 square bales.

hay bale

 Sheep will eat between two and four percent of their body weight per day in dry feed, such as hay, and are very efficient at obtaining the most nutrition possible from three to five pounds per day of hay or other forage. They require three to four hours per day to eat enough hay to meet their nutritional requirements. See ruminants for more info. Sheep can get eye infections such as Pink Eye from hay debris at feeding time, mouldy hay can also cause toxoplasmosis.

Hefting

The acclimatising of a flock of hill sheep to ‘their’ part of the hillside. A hefted flock is worth more to a farmer than one that has not been acclimatised as they roam far less and are easier to manage. (Breeds such as herwicks or ryelands are better at hefting than escape artists such as shetlands).

Hoggs

Male or female sheep from weaning to first shearing. 

Hogget 

Meat for sale as hogget is a sheep of either sex having no more than two permanent incisors in wear.

Lamb

Meat for sale as lamb is  a young sheep under 12 months of age which does not have any permanent incisor teeth in wear.

Scottish Lamb

Listeriosis

 
Listeria bacteria thrive in soil and can be picked up at harvesting if the hay/silage crop is cut too low or there are a lot of mole hills in the field. They are a particular problem of high dry matter, later cut silage which is more difficult to consolidate to exclude air. These forages often have low sugar content, leading to poor fermentation and a high pH. This allows the bacteria to multiply throughout the bale, even at low temperatures.
 
Affected ewes have drooping faces and drool, and walk in circles as a result of
abscesses in the brain. Listeriosis also causes abortions in pregnant ewes and presents a risk to pregnant women.  Most cases occur four to six weeks after eating affected silage.

Mastitis

An infection of the udder. If left untreated it can severely damage the ability of a sheep to produce milk. A ewe who has suffered from mastitis may become a cull ewe.

Mutton

Meat for sale as mutton is a female (ewe) or castrated male (wether) sheep having more than two permanent incisors in wear.

Orf

Orf is a painful skin disease of sheep and goats.  The disease is caused by a virus which only grows in the surface layers of the skin, but the virus will only cause an infection if the skin is already damaged. Therefore any cut, scratch or graze, no matter how seemingly insignificant, may predispose an animal to infection. Even rough food or pasture with nettles, gorse, and thistles can increase the chances of becoming infected. Humans can be infected with this affliction.  Read more here.

Over-wintering

Sheep from upland areas of Britain are regularly sent for the winter to lowland areas where feed is more available and the weather less harsh. They return to the uplands before lambing in the spring. The owner of the sheep pays the owner of the lowland farm a certain amount per sheep.

Parturition or Gestation

Parturition is the act of birth. For a link to the table click here this enables you to calculate roughly when your lambs are due from the time of mating (if you raddled your ram and then checked every day) or the earliest date from the time that the tup went in with the girls.  Although we found that first timers can go about a week early so it is not entirely set in stone.  

Raddling

Fitting rams with a harness that contains a paint block. The paint leaves a mark on the rump of each ewe with whom the ram mates. Lack of a mark tells the farmer which ewes should remain longer with the ram. Sometimes thick paint is applied directly to the ram’s chest rather than using a harness. This wears off more quickly and must be renewed regularly.

Rigwelted

Overturned. A heavily pregnant, broad backed ewe may roll over and be unable to right herself. She is rigwelted or couped. This causes a lot of problems – right your sheep as quickly as possible.

Rise

A sign that sheep are ready for shearing. The previous winter’s greasy wool is lifted away from the skin by new wool that is much easier to cut. The Rise is seen as a yellowish line. Shearers may ask you if your sheep are on the rise yet – that is- ready for shearing.

Rough grazing

Grazing on natural, unmanaged grass and other vegetation growing on mountain slopes, moorland etc. 

Ruminant

An animal (they are all herbivores) that ‘chew the cud’. Examples are cattle, sheep and deer but NOT horses. They digest more of a plant than ‘single stomached’ animals by having a ‘rumen’ (the first of several stomachs) where the plant material they have eaten are fermented by micro-organisms to produce proteins and sugars the animal can digest.                                                                                               

Wikipedia says “One of the most significant differences in hay digestion is between ruminant animals, such as cattle and sheep; and non-ruminant, hindgut fermentors, such as horses. Both types of animals can digest cellulose in grass and hay, but do so by different mechanisms. Because of the four-chambered stomach of cattle, they are often able to break down older forage and have more tolerance of mold and changes in diet. The single-chambered stomach and cecum or “hindgut” of the horse uses bacterial processes to break down cellulose that are more sensitive to changes in feeds and the presence of mold or other toxins, requiring horses to be fed hay of more consistent type and quality.”

Shearling

A young sheep between its first and second shearing. Sheep are normally sheared once a year.

Silage

Grass or other crops that have been cut, allowed to wilt but not completely dry out, and are then preserved in plastic wrapping or in a large mound or pit (called a clamp) from which all air is excluded. Silage is fed to livestock through the winter when fresh grass is not available. Not popular with smallholders because it only comes is large wrapped round bales that are very heavy and difficult to handle by hand. (Also watch that the seal has not been damaged during delivery which allows it to go off).  Also you need a sufficient number of sheep to eat the bale before it goes off.   Something in between hay and silage is haylage and also sold in this way.                                                                                                                      

Beware -big bales of silage made from salvaged hay crops could be very low in feeding value. Silages that are poorly fermented with a high pH can present a high risk of listeriosis when fed. When feeding silage, reduce wastage by offering only what the sheep will eat daily – do not allow silage to go stale.

Poorly made silage has a noticeable, usually disagreeable smell. Animals will not be keen to eat it and there will be a high degree of wastage. Some silages can be dangerous to feed.  Problem silage can have the following indicators

  • Rancid, fishy odour. Slimy, sticky texture
  • Mouldy silage with a musty odour
  • Smells of vinegar
  • Sweet smelling 
  • Ammonia odour
  • Smells like tobacco or burnt. Looks olive green.

For more information on making silage and analysing silage click here.

Stores

Animals bred for meat production sold before they are ready to be killed. A farmer breeds them and rears them through their early life when they are at greatest risk from disease but because they are small they need relatively little food. They are sold at market as stores to someone who has plenty of feed available and specialises in fattening them.

Straw

Is the stem and leaf residue left from the harvest of small grains, typically oats, wheat, and rice. Although sheep will consume some of it, it’s generally used as a bedding material. It’s very absorbent. 

Stubble turnip

Winter fodder or forage for sheep.

Teaser

A teaser is often a vasectomised ram or whether that is put in with the ewes before a ram to stimulate them to ovulate for breeding. Using a teaser helps to synchronise pregnancy and therefore lambing.

Tup

A male intact sheep. Another word for a breeding ‘ram’.

Unfinished/store lambs

Butchers will only buy lambs that have reached a certain weight and level of fatness. How long it takes a lamb to grow to this size varies according to breed, birth weight and food available. Some lambs finish sooner than others. On hill farms where there is not enough outdoor feed for lambs, any remaining at the end of the year may be sold as stores, to be finished on lowland farms during the winter and spring.

Wether

A castrated male sheep often used as a companion to a ram and as a teaser. 

Yow

A slang term for a female sheep.

Link

 February 9, 2012  post archive, sheep Tagged with: , , , ,
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