egg

Mar 112014
 
pullet for sale at fifesmallholder

Silkie, Leghorn, Legbar, Maran, and hybrid laying chickens for sale at fifesmallholder

Hatching time has started again and in a few weeks our chicks will be ready to start to lay eggs.  This is called ‘point of lay’  and these birds are called pullets.  They are all female.  Chickens start to lay eggs about 17 weeks old, and have moved from eating chick crumbs to pellets and wheat.

white silkie chic

We have several cockerels of different breeds so have hatched:

cockerel    hybrid laying hens (medium brown eggs) hardy and reliable layer

 Hybrid chickens rarely go broody, and will lay reliably throughout the year.  Pure bred chickens are more likely to only lay between April to September.  A hybrid born late summer should lay throughout its first winter with or without light in the hen shed.

leghorn poultry  pure bred leghorn (large white eggs) a good reliable layer 

Unlike other pure breeds leghorns lay well throughout the year but will require light in the hen shed in winter.  For a large fowl breed they are not too big despite the size of their eggs, and are therefore cheaper to feed than some of the larger breeds.  Good value for money.

 white silkie henpure bred silkies (small cream eggs) a good pet unreliable layer

If you do not have much room, a small hen shed, or do not want much damage in your garden then these are a good choice.  Although they only lay through the breeding season (April to September) they make up for this in character.  A docile chicken, that is lovely to look at and most are good with children.  We have a beardie cockerel so our chicks have extra character.

We now have pure bred cream crested legbars (large blue eggs) seasonal layer

These chickens produce lovely blue eggs and can be used to cross with any other hen and will produce a variation of blue or green eggs.  These chickens are auto-sexing and this works even on the cross chickens saving you the expense of rearing cockerels when these are unwanted.

We now have two unrelated maran cockerels and hope to start breeding pure marans over the summer of 2014 – these lay dark brown eggs.

We are also open to swapping cockerels to improve the gene pool – if you have a young healthy man who you would like to swap with one of ours then please contact us to discuss.   

Why buy new chickens?

bearded silkie chicken

Hens that start laying eggs in the autumn should lay all winter in the first year and will tide you over if your other hens stop as the daylight reduces in the winter months.  We move our hens into their winter housing which has a light to help encourage our girls to lay in the winter.  The light is not on all the time, only for a few hours each day, but it is enough to give our girls a rest and keep producing a few eggs.

free range white female silkie hen

How do you introduce new chickens to your old chickens?

It is always advisable to quarantine your new stock (in case of disease) and make sure that they have been treated for worms and mites before introducing them to your flock.  This is best done at night, however there will be some disorder until the hens sort out the pecking order.  To reduce the stress and bullying make sure that there is more than one feeding and drinking station so that new chickens are able to access food.

For sale

If you like what you see please get in touch.  Check out my poultry page.

Mar 102014
 
table bird chickens at fife smallholder

Backyard/garden poultry keeping

What you need to know if keeping a few chickens in your garden

Keeping a few hens or chickens in your back garden has become popular again, as people want an outdoor pet that also provides fresh free range eggs.  If you have a large back garden with space for your chickens to roam securely then why not?

cockerel

Before you embark on this adventure please do your homework first, and check to make sure that there are not any clauses in your lease, mortgage, or bye-laws that restrict the keeping of poultry.  I would also urge to consider very carefully the keeping of a cockerel – they are noisy and will annoy the neighbours.

Things to do before you buy chickens for your garden or smallholding

‘Any person who keeps animals, or who causes or knowingly permits animals to be kept, must not attend to them unless he has access to all relevant statutory welfare codes relating to the animals while he is attending to, and is acquainted with the provisions of those codes.’

  • It is important that you read and understand the welfare guides/codes of recommendation relating to the animals you intend to keep.  Read more here.

The ‘five freedoms’.

  • Freedom from hunger and thirst. By access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vision.
  • Freedom from discomfort. By provision of an appropriate environment including shelter and rest area.
  • Freedom from pain, injury or disease. By preventing or rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment including humane slaughter.
  • Freedom to express normal behaviour. By providing sufficient space, proper facilities and company.
  • Freedom from fear and distress. By ensuring that conditions and treatment avoid mental suffering
mother and baby

Stepping Out

Feeding your animals/chickens

Animal feed plays an important part in the food chain and there are rules governing this area. Most smallholders buy bags of chicken and turkey feed direct from an agricultural supplier in large bags because this is the cheapest way to do it.  However you need to ensure that it is stored properly and protected from vermin. Read more.

Do I need to register my chicken?

 
If you own or keep 50 or more poultry birds then you must register with DEFRA (Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs). This is due to the avian influenza (preventative measures) (Scotland) Regulations 2005.  The poultry register remains open to allow for the continual voluntary registration of premises with less than 50 poultry. Bird species that must registered:
 
  •      Chickens
  •      Turkeys
  •       Ducks
  •       Geese
  •       Quail
  •       Emus
  •       Rheas
  •       Kiwis
  •      Pheasants
  •      Partridge
  •      Guinea fowl
  •      Cassowaries
You can register with DEFRA by calling free on 0800 634 1112.
 

Can I sell my eggs?

Yes you can sell your clean fresh eggs direct but they will not be marked with a stamp like the ones in the supermarket.

free range egg

“Ungraded eggs sold direct to the final consumer at the producer’s farm gate or sold by the producer locally door-to door in the region of production will not have to be marked.”

Egg Box Labelling for small scale poultry keepers such as smallholders

Producers with fewer than 50 birds are not required to mark their eggs – so long as they provide other information such as their name and address and provide consumer advice to keep eggs chilled after purchase along with a best before date (maximum 28 days from lay) for the eggs at the point of sale.  For more information about eggs click here.

white silkie hen

 Where can I buy chickens in Fife Scotland?

 Here at Fife Smallholder we sell fertilised eggs and chicken pullets or point of lay.  Read more
 

How Much Does It Cost To Keep Chickens?

It really depends on how much you want to spend.  I know people who keep a few hens that roost in a coal cellar at night on the back of a chair, and others whose chickens live in a bespoke Eglu.  Read more 

hen and chick

Top Of the World

How do I introduce new chickens to my existing chickens?

It is always advisable to quarantine your new stock (in case of disease) and make sure that they have been treated for worms and mites before introducing them to your flock.  This is best done at night, however there will be some disorder until the hens sort out the pecking order.  To reduce the stress and bullying make sure that there is more than one feeding and drinking station so that new chickens are able to access food.

 March 10, 2014  garden, post archive, poultry Tagged with: , , ,
Jul 262012
 
cassis

Things to make with seasonal excess produce 

Its summer here on the smallholding, and this is a time of plenty.  Fruit and vegetables are ripening and the chickens are at peak egg laying capacity.  Unfortunately this is when many of our farm gate customers are on holiday and we don’t like to waste anything, so when we have too much we have a range of  things we do to use up the excess or preserve for later.  Here are some of our favourite seasonal recipes:

Egg Mayonnaise

free range egg

Ingredients:

  • 2 free range egg yolks 
  • 1 whole free range egg
  • 2.5ml./half teaspoon of dijon mustard
  • 2.5ml./half teaspoon of salt
  • 1.25ml./quarter teaspoon pepper
  • 300ml./10 fl. oz. light oil (I prefer a vegetable and olive oil blend)
  • 15ml./1 tablespoon lemon juice
  • 15ml./1 tablespoon white balsamic vinegar
  • 1 garlic clove crushed

If possible have all the ingredients at room temperature, as eggs taken straight from the fridge tend to curdle.  I use a blender to make my mayo, and start by cracking the whole egg into the blender.  Add the egg yolks, mustard, salt and pepper and beat on a low setting until they become creamy in colour.  Gradually beat in half the oil, drop by drop, until the sauce is thick and shiny.  Beat in the lemon juice, then the remaining oil, then the vinegar.  If you want to thin the mayo, add some more lemon juice, a little single cream or 15-30 ml./1-2 tablespoons of hot water.

Thick mayo may be stored in an airtight container in the fridge for about two weeks.

Tip: if the mayo does curdle, beat another egg yolk in a clean bowl and beat in the curdled mixture a teaspoon at a time.

Makes about 350 ml./12 fl. oz.

Goes well with some (freshly dug) cold potato salad. 

Here’s a link to a blog about 30 things you can do with egg shells. 

Blackcurrants

fruit jam

You can’t beat Blackcurrant jam on your porridge. Here is a link to a recipe.

A French WWoofer recently made us a Tarte Au Cassis which was delicious.  Here is a link to the recipe.
blackcurrant tart

You also can’t beat blackcurrant vodka for a sore throat.  Click here for a link to an alcoholic recipe, or here for a non alcoholic recipe.

Courgettes

Try this courgette lemon cake recipe.

 

Sloes

What to do with the left over sloes from sloe gin. 

 

Elderberry 

Recipe for cordial syrup.

 

Bramble or Blackberry 

Blackberry

Make bramble or blackberry oxymel to keep colds at bay in the Winter. Put 200g of blackberries in a jar covered with cider vinegar for 10 days.  Shake occasionally. Strain through muslin. Pour into sterilised bottle and store in the fridge. Put 2 tsps into boiling water. Add honey to taste.

Runner Beans

Here’s a link to making chutney with runner beans.

Onions

It’s harvest time – If you’ve got loads of onions, chop them up and freeze them in a container. They last for months.

Beeswax

I like me you were lucky enough to take some honey from your bees before autumn, then you will probably have some beeswax cappings left over from your frame of honey.  This can be used to make a range of things from furniture polish to hand lotion.  Click here for a link on how to make hand lotion, you can get your ingredients here (including wax balls if you are not a beekeeeper) to make the lotion. Put up into suitable containers and store in a fridge. Shelf life is about one month.  Here is another link which claims to last for up to 6 months.

“One benefit of using natural emollients over synthetic chemical emollients is that the industrial processes used to create synthetic emollients often destroy beneficial elements of the base material, and may require the addition of carcinogenic catalysts.”

Quote source

Mar 272012
 
when I grow up......

For sale leghorn and silkie hatching eggs from fifesmallholder

chicks sheltering with mum

Leghorn

 

We like the leghorns because they are not big chickens in size (cheaper to feed over winter) but produce good big white eggs on a very regular basis.  These eggs are popular especially at Easter because they can be easily dyed or decorated.  I have a range of colours of chicken (white, black, lavender) so not sure what colour the chicks will turn out to be.  The eggs are always white.

 

For more information on the breed click here.

 

Silkie

 

Silkie chickens are not a very prolific egg layer but are very suitable to someone who wants just a few hens for their own back garden.  Very popular with children.  They are a small breed, very cute, and not very destructive of the ground they are housed on.  They lay small cream eggs during the main laying season.

Silkies are also popular as broody hens and are an economical way of rearing chics without the need or expense of incubators or brooders.

white silkie hen

For more information on the breed click here.

 

Hybrid 

Multicoloured eggs are also available from our hybrid layers who are lay regularly. We are also hoping to rear Maran chickens this summer.  In the meantime the Maran cockerels are in with the hybrids.

 

 

For sale – fertilised hatching eggs

free range egg

 

Hatching eggs can be collected from the smallholding or sent to you in the post.  See my page for more information on hatching eggs.

 

 

 

 

 

 March 27, 2012  income, post archive, poultry Tagged with: , , , , , , ,
Jan 042012
 
hand washing

The risk of cryptosporidium salmonella and E.coli on the smallholding

A smallholder can be very busy and multi-tasking is something you get used to.  It is therefore very easy to forget to wear protection, gloves, or wash your hands properly.  Especially at this time of year when it can be very muddy.

Your hands are permanently dirty from being outside, and can often have cuts or wounds from some mishap or other.  Or you are bottle feeding young lambs or hatched chics, and people (especially children) want to come and see them.  What is the risk in that?

The bacteria Escherichia coliand Salmonella and the protozoa Cryptosporidium are among the organisms that have the potential to cause serious disease that may be found in animal droppings and on contaminated surfaces around smallholdings.

What is cryptosporidium?

Cryptosporidium is a protozoan (single celled) parasite of human and animal importance, which if ingested, can cause an illness called cryptosporidiosis.  It can be transmitted through contact with soil, food, water or surfaces that have been contaminated with infected human or animal faeces. The most common symptom is watery diarrhoea, which can range from mild to severe. Cryptosporidiosis is most common in children aged between one and five years, but it can affect anyone. People with weak immune systems are likely to be most seriously affected.
Over 45 different species of animals including poultry, fish, reptiles, small mammals (rodents, dogs, and cats) and large mammals (including cattle and sheep) can become infected with Crytposporidium parvum.  The reservoir for this organism includes people, cattle, deer and many other species of animal.
Oocysts are shed in the faeces and can survive under very adverse environmental conditions. The oocysts are very resistant to disinfectants. People can re-infect themselves one or more times.  Human infection may be acquired by four main routes: from other people, from animals and their faeces, from untreated drinking water contaminated by either agricultural or human sewage sources, and from swimming in contaminated water. 
Cryptosporidiosis can be prevented by using good personal hygiene. Hands should be washed with soap after using bathroom facilities. Only clean or filtered water should be consumed, and food must be prepared properly.
“Individuals who work with animals should wear protective clothing, and washing hands after handling animals is essential.”

Farm animals at risk 

A number of different Cryptosporidium species infect animals. In humans, illness is mainly caused by Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis. In animals, illness is mainly caused by Cryptosporidium parvum.  
Young farm animals can also suffer from Cryptosporidium diarrhoea.”
 The disease in calves/lambs/kids
  •  One to four weeks old
  • Diarrhoea, anorexia, and weight loss
  • Often occurs with other diarrhoea-causing bacteria and/or viruses, or in animals that have a compromised immune system
  • Re-infection can cause relapses, chronic infection and death
  • Infected calves/lambs/kids pass the organism in their faecal material
Humans can become infected with Cryptosporidium parvum through exposure to young ruminants with diarrhoea. Take proper precautions when treating calves/lambs/kids with diarrhoea.
  •  Wear protective gloves
  • Wash hands
  • Clean the environment

What is E. coli?

 Escherichia coli (E. coli) are common bacteria which live in the intestines of warm blooded animals. There are certain forms, or strains, of E.coli which are normally found in the intestine of healthy people and animals without causing any ill effects. A number of E. coli strains cause illness but E. coli O157 is associated with more serious illness. For the majority of people the infection is usually self limited and clears within seven days, but children under five are vulnerable to more severe illness. Symptoms can range from mild through to severe diarrhoea, to a serious condition called haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) that affects the blood, kidneys and in severe cases, the central nervous system.

What is salmonella?

Salmonella is found in a range of food products, including meat, produce and eggs. Salmonellosis is an infection of animals and man caused by a group of bacteria called Salmonella. These can live in the digestive tract of a wide range of mammals including people and birds. Over 2,500 strains (serovars) of Salmonella are known most of which rarely cause disease. However certain strains, such as S.enteritidis and S.typhimurium, may cause human disease if, for example, foodstuffs become contaminated with animal faeces.
“Eggs from infected hens and milk from infected dairy herds may also contain salmonella.”
Infection may also follow contact with infected animals. It is usually fairly short-lived and often does not cause any obvious disease. However disease may occur with high temperature, diarrhoea and blood poisoning. In a few cases infected animals or people may carry certain strains of the bacteria for prolonged periods. 

Prevention

 Cryptosporidiosis is highly infectious so proper sanitation and good hygiene practices are important measures in the prevention of cryptosporidiosis.  Such measures include: 
  • washing hands thoroughly with soap (I prefer to use ant-bacterial) and warm water before eating or preparing food, after using the toilet, cleaning up after others with diarrhoea, after contact with domestic or farm animals
  • washing or peeling raw fruit and vegetables thoroughly before eating 
  • avoiding unpasteurised milk and fruit juices

Sanitiser hand gels

Reliance on sanitiser hand gels instead of hand washing is not effective in killing bugs such as E. coli O157 or Cryptosporidium. Visitors should be made aware that using sanitising gels is not a substitute for washing hands with soap and hot water and drying them, as gels may fail to remove contamination in the way that soap and running water can. However it is likely that using sanitising gels following handwashing with soap and water may provide extra benefit.

Handwashing 

 “Hand washing is the single most important prevention step in reducing transmission of gastrointestinal infections after handling animals and it’s crucial that hand washing in young children should be supervised, especially after touching or petting animals or their surroundings on a visit to a smallholding. ” 
There are five basic ways to manage diarrhoea and vomiting and prevent the spread of diseases:
  • Careful hand washing is the most important prevention measure that you can take. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and warm water and dry afterwards. Do not share towels.
  • Use gloves when handling soiled articles from ill people. Wash soiled clothing and bed linen on ‘hot cycle’.
  • If looking after someone with gastroenteritis, carefully disinfect toilet seats, flush handles, wash-hand basin taps and toilet door handles daily and after use. Use a bleach-based household cleaner, diluted according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
  • Maintain good personal hygiene and hygienic preparation and serving of food.
If you have gastroenteritis, don’t return to school or work until you have been symptom-free for 48 hours. Look what happened in the Archers.  Don’t visit patients in local hospitals and long-term care facilities. While many people tend to feel better sooner, illness can still be spread if they return to work or school within 48 hours since the last symptom.

Other tips for a safe smallholding visit include:

  • Don’t put hands on faces or fingers in mouths while petting animals or walking round the smallholding.
  • Don’t kiss animals nor allow children to put their faces close to animals.
  • Don’t eat or drink while touching animals or walking round the smallholding, including sweets, crisps or chewing gum.
  • Don’t eat anything that has fallen on the floor.
  • Only eat and drink in picnic or designated areas.
  • Remove and clean boots or shoes that might have become dirty and clean push-chair wheels.

Useful information

  •  A leaflet detailing advice for the public on avoiding infection on farm visits can be found on the HPA’s website 
  •  The Health and Safety Executive’s guidance for those running and visiting petting farms can be found on the HSE’s website 
  • Information sheet 
Dec 222011
 

Free Range Scotch Egg Recipe – What to do with stale bread

You can’t beat some free range eggs from Fifesmallholder, even in winter the yolk is still a strong yellow colour.  A reflection of the feed they are fed and  what they eat whilst wandering about our pasture or woodland.  Here is a good recipe for eggs that are not as fresh as they might be (fresh eggs sold direct from a smallholder will not peel as well because they may only be a couple of days old – you need to give them a couple of weeks so that the shell peels away more easily).

* please try to buy locally or support Scottish producers*

makes 4 scotch eggs

Ingredients:

  • 5 free range eggs
  • salt and pepper to taste
  • 400g (14oz) free range pork sausages
  • 30g (1& 1/4 oz) flour
  • 4 tbs milk
  • 80g (3oz) fine breadcrumbs from a stale loaf
  • olive oil or sunflower oil for frying

Method:

1. Fill a saucepan with water and place over a medium heat.  When it is simmering steadily, add four eggs.  Cook for 7 minutes then drain and place in a bowl of iced water for 5 minutes.  Cool completely and peel.  Set aside.

2. Open up your sausages to access the sausage meat, discard the skins.  Season the meat well and divide into four. Using wet hands,  flatten each piece, then shape into a cup big enough to hold an egg.  Place an egg into each cup and then pinch the meat around the egg to seal it inside.  Set aside.

3. Line a plate with non-stick baking paper and set aside.

4. Prepare the coating for the eggs by placing the flour on a flat dish then seasoning.  In a wide,  shallow bowl,  beat the remaining egg with the milk.  Spread the breadcrumbs on a plate.

5. Take a meat wrapped egg and roll it in the seasoned flour to coat, shaking off the excess.  Now dip it in the beaten egg mixture, and then roll it in the breadcrumbs.  Set aside on the non-stick baking paper and repeat with the remaining eggs.

6. Pre-heat oil in a deep-frying pan or saucepan (filled one third full with oil) to 160 deg C or 325 deg F and fry two eggs at a time for 6 minutes.  Using tongs, rotate eggs to ensure they brown evenly.  Drain on kitchen paper, and allow to cool before serving or refrigerating.  Once cool, the eggs will last for 2 days in an airtight container.

For more egg information check out my egg page.

 December 22, 2011  post archive, recipe Tagged with: , , , ,
Oct 122011
 
free range egg

smallholders can sell eggs direct

 

Producers with fewer than 50 birds are not required to mark their eggs – so long as they provide other information such as their name and address and provide consumer advice to keep eggs chilled after purchase along with a best before date (maximum 28 days from lay) for the eggs at the point of sale.

More info on eggs on my web page

http://www.fifesmallholder.co.uk/goods/chicken/egg                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Back to topic

 

 

 

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