health

Oct 102012
 
scotland flag

You’ve got the land and now want some animals – Who do I need to contact? What are the rules? Where do I get the paperwork? What if something goes wrong?

If you are not interested in keeping animals on your land or smallholding then you probably won’t want to go any further than registering (if at all) your smallholding.

Keeping Livestock

If you are planning to keep animals such as sheep, goats, pigs, hens, and cattle then read on. Different rules apply to different animals. It is complicated – but not insurmountable! 

Is there a difference between a pet animal and livestock?

Do not assume that because your animal (e.g. sheep, micro-pig, goat, alpaca) is to be kept as a pet that these rules do not necessarily apply to you.  Ignorance is not a defence – if in doubt ask your local authority animal welfare officer.

Bureaucracy surrounding the smallholding

The bureaucracy surrounding agriculture and smallholding is a challenge, don’t let it get on top of you, but don’t ignore it either. You are treated by the authorities just the same as the big guys, and will therefore have to comply with all the regulations. It’s not what you came into smallholding for I know, but the good thing is that you are not alone! Local smallholder associations are there to provide support and advice.

 Things to do before you buy animals for your smallholding

‘Any person who keeps animals, or who causes or knowingly permits animals to be kept, must not attend to them unless he has access to all relevant statutory welfare codes relating to the animals while he is attending to, and is acquainted with the provisions of those codes.’

  • It is important that you read and understand the welfare guides/codes of recommendation relating to the animals you intend to keep.  Read more here.
  • You must register your land or ‘holding’ and get a CPH number (a unique code allocated to the land where animals are kept). You need this number before you purchase/acquire/move any animal onto your smallholding.
  • You must get a flock or herdmark number for your livestock (e.g. sheep and pigs)
  • Get the relevant movement documentation for your animal (from the previous owner) and be aware of the regulations around transporting animals. You may need a licence for moving certain agricultural animals (e.g. pigs see below).

Once you have your animals – other things you need to do

  • Your animals must be properly identifiable, with the correct flock or herdmark numbers. Different animals have different tagging rules and some even require electronic identification (e.g. sheep).
  • Poultry and other fowl may require to be registered (see below).
  • You need to keep a register and medications book. Return an annual inventory where requested, and notify a range of agencies depending on the animal and it’s movements (more details below).

Feeding your animals/livestock

Animal feed plays an important part in the food chain and there are rules governing this area. Most smallholders buy bags of animal feed direct from an agricultural supplier which is pre-mixed, however rules do apply about how that feed is stored (and your premises may be inspected to make sure you comply), as well as what different animals can be fed (e.g. pigs cannot be fed anything that has had contact with your kitchen).

You must be registered with your local authority if you;
  • manufacture animal feed,
  • market animal feed,
  • import animal feed,
  • store animal feed,
  • transport animal feed,
  • sell co-products of food industry as animal feed,
  • carry out on-farm mixing,
  • feed food producing animals,
  • grow crops to be used as animal feed.
 Contact your local authority Animal Health Officer for details.
The Food Standards Agency (FSA) is responsible for drawing up the rules on the composition and marketing of animal feed as well as improving food safety throughout the food chain. This includes improving hygiene on farms and making sure that public health is not put at risk through what is fed to animals.  Food hygiene legislation applies to farmers, growers and other producers, in many cases for the first time as part of the ‘farm to fork’ approach to food safety. There is a question and answer section available on the Food Standards Agency FSA website.

Smallholder paperwork

If you are the owner or occupier of a smallholding, you also need to keep records of animal stock on your premises. This is called a register of the animals on your holding; you should keep a separate register for each holding you use. This register will hold information about your animals, the holding and any movements of animals on or off your holding. You can keep your own records, in any format you wish however, it must contain all the necessary information as set out in the Scottish Government website you can download one from here .

Registering your smallholding

You must register your holding within 30 days from the date you first keep animals.  If you are a new sheep/goat/pig/cattle keeper you must register your holding with your local Rural Payments and Inspections Directorate (RPID) Office.  They will give you a CPH number which is a unique code allocated to the land where animals are kept. The CPH code is used when reporting and recording animal movements.

Where do I get a Flock/herdmark number from?

You must get flockmark/herdmark number for your animals.  This is done by contacting your local Animal Health Divisional Office (AHDO).
They will give you a flockmark (sheep) or herdmark (goats/pigs) for your holding. The flockmark or herdmark is allocated to the holding and must be used to identify all animals born on the holding. Keepers who use the same holding must use the same flockmark or herdmark. You require the flockmark or herdmark to buy identification tags and electronic identifiers (from agricultural shops/suppliers).  You must also inform your local AHDO within 30 days of ceasing to keep animals on a holding.

Movement of animals

What is samu?

You must notify movements of animals on to your holding to the Scottish Animal Movement Unit (SAMU).
SAMU, Government Buildings, 161 Brooms Road, Dumfries, DG1 3ES
Phone: 0845 601 7597, Fax: 01387 274 457
samu@scotland.gsi.gov.uk
When an animal moves, its movement must be recorded in the triplicate movement document (sheep and goats – different rules apply for pigs) and then reported to the Scottish Animal Movement Unit (SAMU) within 3 days of arrival at the holding by the receiving keeper; moves that take place via a Market in Scotland will be notified to SAMU by the Market. The movement document forms the basis of the notification to SAMU. The white copy of the triplicate movement document can be either posted or faxed to SAMU. You can also complete electronic notification of the movement details.

You get your triplicate movement document (sheep and goats) from the RPID office.  All movements from a holding in Scotland (except those for emergency veterinary treatment) must be accompanied by a movement document and sent to SAMU .

Annual inventory of sheep and goats

You must return the annual inventory of sheep and goats sent to you directly by the Scottish Government. They will only know to do this if you have registered your smallholding.

REGISTRATION OF PIG HOLDINGS

Keepers of pigs are required to register holdings where pigs are kept and must maintain records of all pig movements.  Any owner or person in charge of pigs is required to notify the Divisional Veterinary Manager (DVM) at local AHDO office giving details of :
i. name and address of the owner or occupier of the holding
ii. identification number (CPH) of the holding
iii. species of livestock kept, and
iv. to notify the DVM within one month, of any changes to these details

Moving pigs

When pigs are moved a self declaration movement document or a licence issued by the local authority or Divisional Veterinary Manager must accompany the animals on their journey. Where a self declaration movement document is used a copy must be forwarded to the local authority within 3 days. The local authority will in turn notify the Scottish Animal Movement Unit (SAMU) of the details of the movement.
In the event of disease outbreak, the precise location of all livestock is essential for effective measure to control and eradicate highly contagious diseases.
Self declaration movement documents are therefore used to record the details of a movement in instances where keepers move pigs from a farm. The type of declaration to be used (Schedule 2, Schedule 3, or Schedule 4) will depend on the purposes for which the pigs are being moved and the destination to which the pigs are being moved to.
  • Schedule 2: Movement of pigs from a farm form of declaration
  • Schedule 3: Movement of pigs from a farm for breeding, exhibition, artificial insemination, or veterinary treatment form of declaration
  • Schedule 4: Movement of pigs on return to farm after movement from farm for breeding purposes form of declaration
Keepers need to be aware of the requirements being placed upon them when using self declaration movement documents.  No fees are payable. This is simply a notification process with the requirement being to forward a copy of the relevant self declaration to the local authority within 3 days. Tacit consent applies. This is only a notification process so this means that you will be able to act as though your application is granted if you have not heard from the local authority by the end of the target completion period.
Examples of forms can be downloaded from websites below:
Downlodad animal transportation advice and get info on pig movement licences etc from this web page

Do I need to register my chicken?

If you own or keep 50 or more poultry birds then you must register with DEFRA (Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs). This is due to the avian influenza (preventative measures) (Scotland) Regulations 2005.  The poultry register remains open to allow for the continual voluntary registration of premises with less than 50 poultry. Bird species that must registered:
  •      Chickens 
  •      Turkeys 
  •       Ducks     
  •       Geese
  •       Quail     
  •       Emus  
  •       Rheas    
  •       Kiwis
  •      Pheasants  
  •      Partridge  
  •      Guinea fowl 
  •      Cassowaries
You can register with DEFRA by calling free on 0800 634 1112.

Disease in your livestock

Reporting Notifiable Diseases

Many animal diseases are highly contagious and must be reported as soon as an outbreak is suspected. Such notifiable disease include:
  •   Foot and Mouth Disease         
  • Swine Fever        
  •  Anthrax            
  • Rabies
If you suspect signs of notifiable disease, or have a case confirmed, you must report it immediately to: DEFRA Divisional Veterinary Manager, Local Authority Animal Health Officer and Police.  A comprehensive list of notifiable disease can be obtained from the DEFRA website

LOCAL AUTHORITY CONTACT DETAILS

You can find out your local authority animal health officer here.

Animals going to slaughter

Animals going to slaughter require a range of documentation

  • transfer of ownership through your triplicate book (see above)
  • movement licence for pigs (see above)
  • food chain document (see below)
  • you must also abide by the correct transport regulations and use a method of transport that is acceptable (e.g. you may find that an abbattoir might refuse to accept the delivery of sheep or pigs on a horse trailer because there is insufficient side gates which increases the risk of escape).

Food chain information

From 1 January 2010 EU food hygiene legislation required slaughterhouse operators to ‘request, receive, check and act upon’ food chain information (FCI) for all cattle, sheep and goats sent for slaughter for human consumption. 
Read more here.

The ‘five freedoms’.

  • Freedom from hunger and thirst. By access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vision.
  • Freedom from discomfort. By provision of an appropriate environment including shelter and rest area.
  • Freedom from pain, injury or disease. By preventing or rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment including humane slaughter.
  • Freedom to express normal behaviour. By providing sufficient space, proper facilities and company.
  • Freedom from fear and distress. By ensuring that conditions and treatment avoid mental suffering
Aug 072012
 
15sep12 039

Fly Strike is the thing a smallholder fears the most when they have sheep

Some people (usually your vet) will tell you that sheep are born to die, and sometimes I think its true.

Its summer, its August, and the lambs are growing fast.  At 5 months old they are now weaned from their mums, and eating grass like there’s no tomorrow.  The ewes and tups have all been sheared and there is enough fresh grass to go around.  All the hard work has been done now and its time to relax.  Take a holiday, or have BBQ’s in the garden.

Aye right!

Relax at your peril.  Warm damp weather is ideal conditions for flies, blow flies in particular.  They are lovely to look at, shiny and green, but if you see them near your sheep you are in trouble.  If you don’t check the sheep regularly then you are in even bigger trouble.

Once you hear that someone else has had fly strike you immediately go onto full alert and check your own sheep.  Then you worry about it until the first frosts. Or, like I did recently, you discover fly strike in one of your lambs.  Having to deal with a struck sheep is a distressing thing for both animal and human, but it must be dealt with.

What is fly strike?

Someone will say that they have had fly strike when they discover that their animal has a wound that is infected with maggots from the blow fly.  Most of the blowfly lifecycle occurs off the sheep and adult flies may travel large distances to find food.  

“When given favourable conditions of humidity and warmth, the entire life cycle from egg to adult can occur in less than 10 days.”

Eggs hatch within 24 hours and first stage larvae penetrate the skin using their hook like mouthparts and secrete enzymes which liquefy and digest the tissue. Larvae are very active and cause further skin and muscle liquefaction with secondary bacterial infection as they develop. Maggot development can take as little as 5 days before they fall off and burrow into the soil to form pupae.

“Struck areas often attract other blowflies

and further waves of strike.”

Once hatched, larvae feed and grow rapidly, undergoing two moults before they become mature maggots in three to 10 days. They then fall off the sheep and undergo further change on the ground, transforming to adult flies in about three to seven days.

“Female flies can lay 2,000 to 3,000 eggs in batches of hundreds, and live for approximately 30 days.”

Blowflies fall into two categories: primary flies are capable of laying eggs and starting a strike, while secondary flies cannot start a strike, but attack areas damaged by an existing strike, and make the injury worse.

When does flystrike occur?

Flystrike can occur at any time of the year, but in the UK animals are particularly at risk between April and October when the weather is warmer.

Why is fly strike bad for sheep?

“Blowfly strike is a major welfare concern and an important cause of ill thrift and death in affected animals.”

 Flystrike occurs when certain species of fly (Lucilia sericata, Phormia terrae-novae and Calliphora erythrocephala flies) lay their eggs on another animal. These eggs hatch into maggots that then begin to eat the animal’s flesh. Flies are attracted by soiled or wet fur/fleece, often around the animal’s rear end. However, any area of the body can be affected, as can any wound, cut or scratch. Flystrike causes serious pain and suffering and it can be fatal.

 How do I know if my sheep have fly strike?

“if its bad you will know just by looking”

There is a saying  – ‘there are people who look at sheep but never see them’ – don’t let that be you.  The quicker you spot something unusual the better.  Lean on the gate and just watch them, get used to watching their normal behaviour.  I’m told I have an obsession with poo – however I think you can tell a lot from the rear end of a sheep and their poo.  What do you need to look out for?

  •  Fly struck sheep are usually restless and may bite or kick at the struck area. They may often turn back their head, biting nervously, or run in short gallops and lie down. Affected areas are usually sites of faecal contamination or infected wounds and are, therefore, usually over the hindquarters and perineum or elsewhere on the body at wound sites.
  • The fleece overlying struck areas is discoloured, moist and foul-smelling. During the early stages, the maggots, which are approximately 1.5 cm long, are only visible, end-on, when the wool is parted, but as the disease progresses, the wool falls out to reveal the underlying affected tissue.
  •  Typically, they will also seek out shade, and may be lying under a tree or hedge. The affected area of the fleece may also appear damp and will be a darker colour.
  • On closer examination, wool will be moist and may be stuck tightly together. The area may also be accompanied by a foul odour. 
  • In severe cases, the skin may be broken. 
  • If the disease progresses, septicaemia could result from secondary infection of the damaged area. If left untreated for long enough, the animal will die. 

Sheep suffering from fly strike show obvious signs of distress. They spend less time grazing and more time tail wagging and rubbing the affected area and biting the struck areas of the fleece they can reach.  If these signs go unrecognised and secondary strike occurs, the wounds can become very extensive and bacterial infection may lead to serious complications such as death from speticaemia and toxaemia. On examination of the sheep the result is often a foul smell from the wound and visible signs of maggots.

What do I do if I discover fly strike?

“Because the toxins released into the bloodstream by the maggots can cause the animal to go into toxic shock, death can result very quickly if flystrike is not spotted and treated rapidly.”

 The recommended way to treat flystrike:

  • Hand shear struck wool (where the maggots and eggs are) and a 5 cm barrier of clean wool around the strike, close to the skin to remove maggots. Unless wool is shorn off it is likely that maggot trails will be missed and sheep will remain struck. 
  • Flystruck sheep need to be treated immediately.  Struck areas are sensitive to sunburn, so should not be clipped other than to gain access to the wound.  A good soaking with an insecticidal organophosphate or high-cis cypermethrin dressing will then kill the maggots and protect the surrounding skin from secondary strike.  Insect growth regulators (cyromazine and dicyclanil) are ineffective for the treatment of established flystrike.
  • Weak and debilitated sheep with extensive flystrike wounds may require humane euthanasia, discuss this with your vet.  You may have treated the maggots on the outside but what if there are maggots inside?
  • Collect the maggot-infested wool into a maggot-proof (plastic) bag and leave the bag in the sun for a couple of days to kill all maggots. This breaks the life cycle. Don’t rely on registered flystrike dressings to kill maggots – some are incapable of killing large maggots and many maggots escape treatment by dropping from the sheep and burrowing into the soil before the insecticide can be applied. Unless maggot infested wool is collected and bagged, most maggots will survive and pupate and come back as adult flies.
  • Apply a registered flystrike dressing to the shorn area to prevent re-strike.
  • Remove struck sheep from the flock. Leaving struck sheep in the flock attracts blowflies. Move the struck sheep to a ‘hospital’ paddock (with a friend for company) this allows closer monitoring of recovery and reduces the risk to the rest of the flock.
  • Protect your other sheep by checking, dagging, and applying a preventative treatment.

Pour-ons are normally what smallholders will use.
When applied correctly to potential areas of strike over the back and breech, pyrethroid or insect growth regulator pour-ons can provide effective control of blowfly strike. High-cis cypermethrin pour-ons provide protection for about 6 weeks and alphacypermethrin for 8 – 10 weeks, while the insect growth regulator pour-ons, cyromazine and dicyclanil, provide protection for 10 and 16 weeks respectively. Pour-on chemicals dissolve in the wool grease and are removed when animals are shorn. In the case of high-cis cypermethrin, this may lead to wool residue problems. Furthermore, the use of pour-ons in adult animals before shearing may be wasteful as it will simply be cut out – shearers may also insist that you do not apply treatments prior to shearing for their own health reasons.  These chemicals are dangerous and there is the risk that without proper personal protective equipment humans may absorb some of the chemical through their skin when handling sheep.

 How to do I treat my sheep after fly strike?

*within your emergency kit you should have the following – hand shears, stiff brush, maggot oil, spoton, crovect, stockholm tar, purple first aid or other antiseptic spray, tea tree oil, citronella or other fly repellant*

It will be just your luck that you discover fly strike on a Saturday afternoon when all the agricultural supply shops are closed for the weekend.  Be prepared!

  • Shearing can clear up most active strikes, we also found a stiff brush handy for getting rid of the exposed maggots.  Remember to put as much of the fleece and maggots into a plastic bag as possible.  This will stop the cycle.
  • If you nick the skin when clipping apply an antiseptic spray and something such as stockholm tar (I like the sprayable horsey version) to seal the wound to prevent access to flies. Other recommendations are tea tree oil cream.
  • I apply spoton directly onto the maggot infested area to help draw them out of the skin and kill them, others may use what they have to hand such as Crovect or Maggot Oil.
  • Apply an insecticidal dressing (such as maggot oil) which protects the healing wound from re-strike. This will either prevent egg-laying female flies, or kill newly hatched larvae that emerge from eggs laid onto treated lesions.
  • Treat any open wounds to prevent infection.
  • The animal should also be treated with an effective broad-spectrum antibiotic.  This is normally given by injection (if you do not have any antibiotic- contact your vet who will supply you with a syringe of appropriate medication – if you are not comfortable injecting yourself then you will either have to pay the vet or get someone who is skilled to do this task).  Smallholders need to learn how to do these jobs – its tough – but its necessary.  I have never had a problem with talking through a concern with my vet.  The raw area attacked by the maggots is an open wound through which infection can enter and a vulnerable/stressed/ or sick lamb can also easily get pneumonia too.
  • If weak and sickly your sheep may not eat, and this in itself could be fatal.   If you are not sure that the animal is eating and drinking then it may be necessary to make sure that it gets adequate liquid and nutritional supplements.  I do this by utilising a bottle and sturdy straw originally for administering nutrients for twin lamb disease, you may also be able to use a large syringe (without the needle) to give the sheep an oral application of water/salts/sugars/vitamins & minerals to keep it alive.  This needs to be done gently and in little doses.
  • Wash the open wound with an antiseptic solution every day to keep it clean (just syringe in or spray and let it soak in or run off). Keep an eye on the skin as it is vulnerable to sunburn or cracking and re-infection as the new skin grows underneath and the old skin falls off.  Other recommendations include vaseline to keep skin moist, and or tea tree oil cream to sooth and prevent restrike.
  • Check for more or hatching maggots and if necessary give a shot of invermectin to deal with any remaining deep seated maggots.
  • Does your animal need wormed or fluked – was this the cause of the dirty bum and infestation?  Even a change of food can upset a sheeps stomach e.g. from eating grass to being in a pen with hay and sheep feed.

After treatment, wounds can take several weeks to heal. The skin will start to grow under the dead areas within a few days and the peeling skin will fall off.  During this time, your animal will be at increased risk of further bouts of flystrike and infection, so it will require careful nursing and additional preventative measures detailed above. Then when the skin heals and dries it might crack so keep it soft with creams such as udder cream, vaseline, or tea tree cream.

Herbal remedies to treat fly strike:

  • Tea tree oil.  Research in Australia has  found that tea tree oil was highly successful in both preventing lice infestations and killing blowfly maggot larvae. “Tea-tree oil could be effective as a preventative treatment for  any wound likely to be struck. It has also been shown to have antibacterial properties and is suggested to have wound healing effects”  

How do I prevent fly strike in my sheep?

  • keep on top of your worm burden especially lambs on new grass or who have not developed resistance to an acceptable worm burden
  • if you have dirty bums then deal with it – cut away the soiled fleece (called dagging or crutching)
  • keep on top of foot rot in your flock especially during wet weather – if your sheep are limping and there is no obvious problem then deal with it and consider vaccination for the long term (blow flies are attracted to the smell of foot rot)
  • I use garlic licks and citronella sprays to discourage flies and reduce the risk
  • use treatments at vulnerable times, some chemicals give you up to 10 weeks protection – a must if you are going away on holiday

Blowflies prefer a warm, moist and sheltered environment, so the risk of strike can be reduced by moving sheep to more exposed pastures. The smell of wool grease and the presence of foot rot, urine soaked wool, skin diseases, scour, or infected cuts attract blowflies to sheep.

Established strike lesions attract even more blowflies. Recently shorn sheep are seldom struck and effective control of gastrointestinal parasites and footrot, general animal health care, crutching and dagging can further aid in the control of flystrike.

Which animals are most at risk of fly strike?

Flystrike (‘myiasis’) is a major welfare problem that mainly occurs during warm weather. It’s a painful condition that can affect rabbits, guinea pigs, cats and dogs as well as farm animals such as sheep, goats, llamas and alpacas.

“Even clean, well-kept animals can get flystrike.

It only takes one fly and one area of soiled fur/fleece or damaged skin”

Animals (not just sheep) that have a dirty rear end or generally dirty fur/fleece.

Causes can include:

  • Long-haired animals that may not be able to groom themselves thoroughly without human intervention.
  • Obese/overweight and older animals that cannot reach round easily to clean themselves.
  • Animals with dental, spinal or balance problems, which make cleaning difficult or painful.
  • Animals that are ill, as they may not feel well enough to clean themselves thoroughly and, depending on their illness, may also produce abnormally smelly urine or have diarrhoea, which will attract flies.
  • Animals that have an inappropriate diet.
  • Animals that have an internal parasitic infection.
  • Animals with an open wound anywhere on the body.
  • Unshorn sheep of woolly breeds.
Jul 262012
 
cassis

Things to make with seasonal excess produce 

Its summer here on the smallholding, and this is a time of plenty.  Fruit and vegetables are ripening and the chickens are at peak egg laying capacity.  Unfortunately this is when many of our farm gate customers are on holiday and we don’t like to waste anything, so when we have too much we have a range of  things we do to use up the excess or preserve for later.  Here are some of our favourite seasonal recipes:

Egg Mayonnaise

free range egg

Ingredients:

  • 2 free range egg yolks 
  • 1 whole free range egg
  • 2.5ml./half teaspoon of dijon mustard
  • 2.5ml./half teaspoon of salt
  • 1.25ml./quarter teaspoon pepper
  • 300ml./10 fl. oz. light oil (I prefer a vegetable and olive oil blend)
  • 15ml./1 tablespoon lemon juice
  • 15ml./1 tablespoon white balsamic vinegar
  • 1 garlic clove crushed

If possible have all the ingredients at room temperature, as eggs taken straight from the fridge tend to curdle.  I use a blender to make my mayo, and start by cracking the whole egg into the blender.  Add the egg yolks, mustard, salt and pepper and beat on a low setting until they become creamy in colour.  Gradually beat in half the oil, drop by drop, until the sauce is thick and shiny.  Beat in the lemon juice, then the remaining oil, then the vinegar.  If you want to thin the mayo, add some more lemon juice, a little single cream or 15-30 ml./1-2 tablespoons of hot water.

Thick mayo may be stored in an airtight container in the fridge for about two weeks.

Tip: if the mayo does curdle, beat another egg yolk in a clean bowl and beat in the curdled mixture a teaspoon at a time.

Makes about 350 ml./12 fl. oz.

Goes well with some (freshly dug) cold potato salad. 

Here’s a link to a blog about 30 things you can do with egg shells. 

Blackcurrants

fruit jam

You can’t beat Blackcurrant jam on your porridge. Here is a link to a recipe.

A French WWoofer recently made us a Tarte Au Cassis which was delicious.  Here is a link to the recipe.
blackcurrant tart

You also can’t beat blackcurrant vodka for a sore throat.  Click here for a link to an alcoholic recipe, or here for a non alcoholic recipe.

Courgettes

Try this courgette lemon cake recipe.

 

Sloes

What to do with the left over sloes from sloe gin. 

 

Elderberry 

Recipe for cordial syrup.

 

Bramble or Blackberry 

Blackberry

Make bramble or blackberry oxymel to keep colds at bay in the Winter. Put 200g of blackberries in a jar covered with cider vinegar for 10 days.  Shake occasionally. Strain through muslin. Pour into sterilised bottle and store in the fridge. Put 2 tsps into boiling water. Add honey to taste.

Runner Beans

Here’s a link to making chutney with runner beans.

Onions

It’s harvest time – If you’ve got loads of onions, chop them up and freeze them in a container. They last for months.

Beeswax

I like me you were lucky enough to take some honey from your bees before autumn, then you will probably have some beeswax cappings left over from your frame of honey.  This can be used to make a range of things from furniture polish to hand lotion.  Click here for a link on how to make hand lotion, you can get your ingredients here (including wax balls if you are not a beekeeeper) to make the lotion. Put up into suitable containers and store in a fridge. Shelf life is about one month.  Here is another link which claims to last for up to 6 months.

“One benefit of using natural emollients over synthetic chemical emollients is that the industrial processes used to create synthetic emollients often destroy beneficial elements of the base material, and may require the addition of carcinogenic catalysts.”

Quote source

Mar 142012
 
scottish lamb

Worms in sheep, ewes, and lambs on your smallholding

Its March and our ewes will soon be lambing.  Amongst other health issues worms can and will play a part in the fitness of my ewes and lambs over the coming months.  This is a complex area and it can often take smallholders a long time to learn about.  Looking back, I wish I had known all about it before I had got my own sheep or let anyone else graze their sheep on my land.  It would have saved a lot of expense and effort for both myself and the woolly lawnmowers.

*checkout the parasite forecast here*

 

Are worms harmful to sheep?

If not treated then the short answer is yes.  Most sheep have some worms in their digestive system – this is normal. Indeed, exposure to worms is essential if sheep are to develop and maintain an immunity to worms.  However failure to manage this issue can cause a smallholder a lot of problems and ongoing expense.
“There are three broad types of internal parasite that can cause significant health issues in sheep – worms, flukes and protozoa.” 
 Worm infestation is probably the most common cause of “ill thrift” in sheep. Worm infection is a significant animal welfare issue and, if not treated, can cause death.  Resistance to chemical treatments is also an emerging problem in managing sheep worms.
“Worms are thought to cost sheep owners more than any other disease.”
How much harm worms do to sheep depends on a range of factors:
•  The type of worm
•  The number of worms in the animal
•  The breed of sheep
•  The level of nutrition available
•  The age of the animal and the level of previous exposure of the animal to the specific worms.
It is important that everyone with sheep has a worm management plan – and this includes smallholders. An effective plan is simple and will save a lot of money, effort and heartache.

Are sheep worms different?

The short answer is yes.  The life cycles of worms or nematodes are similar – the adult lays eggs in the sheep that pass out in faeces and hatch. The larvae infest the pasture and are taken up by grazing sheep, developing into adults in the intestine.
Teladorsagia, Trichostrongylus and Haemonchus have life cycles of just a few weeks, so several can occur in one season. For example, Haemonchus has a short life cycle – as little as 14 days – so numbers can build quickly.
The life cycle of Nematodirus is a full year – eggs shed by lambs during one spring – hatch the following season to infect the subsequent batch of lambs. The  eggs need a period of cold weather followed by warmer temperatures of 10C or more before they hatch. If conditions are right, this can trigger a mass hatch just when young lambs are starting to graze and the result can be devastating.

How do I control worms in my sheep?

Good practice says that a worm management plan is required.  This includes:
  • Worm testing. It is cheap and easy to do. Without regular testing, you won’t know whether you have a problem, whether your worm management plan is working or whether you have an emerging drench resistance problem on your property.
  • Grazing strategy to create safe or low contaminant pastures for lamb weaners and lambing ewes.
  • Maintaining good nutrition during periods of poor pasture growth.
  • Building worm resistance in the flock.
  • Biosecurity measures for new sheep arrivals on the property or any outbreak of worm disease in your flock (a sure sign that your worm management plan has failed).
  • Minimising the risk of drench resistance developing on your property.

What is the sign of worms in sheep?

  • A typical sign of a worm problem is unthrifty sheep. One that is not eating properly, is losing condition, tends to lag behind the others when moved and, in severe cases, is clearly weak.
  • A worm problem often (but not always) results in sheep scouring and requires dagging. In severe cases, affected sheep may scour profusely.
  • Not all worms cause scouring (diarrhoea) and not all scouring is caused by worms (can be bacterial/green feed scours, etc.).
  • Other signs of worm infection you may see are anaemia or swelling under the jaw (commonly called “bottlejaw”).

Which sheep are more vulnerable to worms?

  • Young sheep (under 12 months old) are far more susceptible to worms (especially  Nematodirus) than older sheep. 
  • Sheep under stress (eg during the later stages of pregnancy, during lactation, during winter feed shortages) are also more susceptible to worms.
  • Sheep in intensive conditions, such as an overstocked under rotated smallholder pasture.
Sheep under twelve months of age and ewes in late pregnancy or lactation have a higher requirement for protein. Weaners need it for their own rapid growth and ewes need it for the growth of the foetus, particularly in the last six weeks of pregnancy, and for milk production after the lamb is born.
If pasture quality is poor, such as during a prolonged period of cold, wet conditions, even healthy weaners or pregnant/lactating ewes have difficulty getting enough protein from grazing. If they have a worm infection, the problem is much worse. In short, they will have a major protein deficiency and this will result in rapid loss of condition, which in turn further increases their susceptibility to worms.

What types of Sheep are Less Susceptible to Worms

  • Older sheep (ie sheep that are over 15 months and fully grown) are much less susceptible to worms than weaners and lambs.
  • Wethers and dry ewes are less susceptible to worms than pregnant or lactating ewes.
  • Some breeds of sheep are less susceptible to worms than others. 
If you suspect a worm problem, it is worth doing a worm test to confirm it. However, by the time you have seen the symptoms, the damage to performance has been done, so worms need to be controlled before clinical signs are evident.

Worm Control – General Principles

 “Worms are only a problem if the numbers increase to the point at which growth is affected, sheep become susceptible to other diseases, or die.”
There are five components of an effective worm control program.
Drenching alone will not resolve a worm problem. Too frequent drenching with chemical treatments may reduce the sheep’s immunity to worms and increase the problem of drench resistant worms. Ad hoc or over-frequent drenching is one of the major causes of drench resistance and is, in most cases, a waste of money, time and effort.
The overall purpose of a worm control program should be to minimise production losses caused by internal parasites and to maximise the sheep’s immunity to worms. If these are achieved, the sheep will need fewer drenches.

What Can You Do to Delay the Onset of Drench Resistance on your smallholding?

Make absolutely sure you are administering the correct dose. Underdosing is one of the major causes of drench resistance, as it helps the worms develop a drench resistance. Check the required dose on the label on the drench container.
Always set the dose by the weight of the heaviest sheep in the flock. Many smallholders just take a guess at this, but if it is possible acquire or borrow a weigh machine that gives you an accurate weight.  Administer this dose to all adult sheep. If the flock includes lambs, set the dose for all lambs by the weight of the heaviest lamb. 
Use the correct drenching technique. In particular, ensure that you are drenching over the tongue rather than squirting the drench into the front of the mouth. If you have just two or three sheep, and if you do not have access to a drenching gun, the drench can be administered via a syringe (with the needle removed) in much the same way as if you were using a drenching gun.
However, when using this method, it is important that the drench is administered slowly, as you are not delivering the drench down the sheep’s throat and are relying on the sheep to, in effect, drink it. After use, the syringe should be cleaned by pumping cold water through it, if you intend to re-use it for future drenching.

Tip for maximising the effect of white wormer or drenches on sheep

Fasting. When using white drenches (BZs) or mectins (MLs), the treatment is generally more effective if the sheep are fasted for 24 hours beforehand. Keeping the sheep off feed for six hours after drenching also helps make the treatment more effective.
* ewes in the last six weeks of pregnancy, sheep in poor condition or stressed sheep should not be fasted at all*
Overdosing will not help. However, with white drenches (BZs), two drenches twelve hours apart can be effective. (This applies to sheep but not to goats). Note that any departures from label recommendations will extend the withholding period.
After drenching, put the sheep onto clean pasture wherever possible.

Common smallholder mistake about worming

Because many smallholders only have a few sheep or purchase quantities that create an excessive it is tempting to continue to use your wormer until it is finished.  This could lead to the development of resistance within the worms on your ground.  
“Rotate between the drench classes (BZs, LEVs, MLs) either at each treatment or each year.”
Use a worm test to monitor worm faecal egg counts (FECs). If you know the level of worms in your sheep, you will be best placed to avoid drench overuse, slow the development of drench resistance and save on drench costs.
If you suspect drench resistance among your flock, do a drench resistance test. This will show you if any of the classes of drench are ineffective in your situation, in which case they should be dropped from your worm control program. If you wish to undertake resistance testing, discuss the process with your vet.
It is most important that drenching is not the only strategy for worm control on your property. Drenching should be just part of a program that includes pasture management, nutrition and selective breeding of worm-resistant sheep.

Herbal alternative to using chemicals to control worms

Below are some suggestions around using herbs etc to expell worms, this can be done along side chemical wormers or instead off where the worm burden is not excessive.  Please note however that these solutions are not effective against fluke and their use is being highlighted as a result of interest rather than fact.  It is known that sheep seek out certain plants when they are available, and it is thought that one of the reasons they do this is to expel worms from their system.
It is useful when using worm expellers to keep your sheep on hard standing for up to 48 hours after treatment.  Herbal expellers can be given to sheep in the form of a drench, in their feed, or through licks or drink. The other option is to include herbage such as chickory and plantain in the seed mix within the grazing.
Plants that have been highlighted as useful in tackling worms are:
  • chickory
  • plantain
  • willow bark (tannin levels)
  • parsley
  • thyme
  • garlic
  • cider vinegar

The dangers of introducing new sheep to your smallholder flock

All sheep that are bought in should undergo a quarantine period on arrival. They should be drenched . Following a 24-48 hour quarantine period, all of the susceptible worms should have been passed, the sheep should then be grazed on pasture recently used by the current flock so that they pick up the resident worms on the holding.
Use a “quarantine drench” to treat any sheep coming onto the property. Unless you know the drench resistance status of these new sheep, the most effective “quarantine drench” is a combination drench (ie one containing both white and clear drenches) plus moxidectin, or otherwise just one of the mectins.
Some authorities recommend maintaining a “refugia” of susceptible worms within a flock as a way of delaying any onset of drench resistance. Essentially, this involves leaving some susceptible worms (ie susceptible to your drench providing you know that the class of drench you are using is effective on your property) in the flock. The point is to dilute the number of drench-resistant worms building up in the flock.
“This strategy involves simply leaving 5-10% of the flock undrenched. Of course, the ones you do not drench must be the healthiest looking sheep in the flock.”
There is some controversy about this “refugia” strategy and it may not be appropriate in all circumstances, so please consult your vet before using it.

How to use your ground/field/pasture in managing your worm burden

The life cycle of worms includes a period in which the worm larvae live outside the sheep – that is, in the pasture. This creates both a problem and an opportunity for sheep owners. 

Sheep worm myth

There was once a common belief that worm larvae could only live outside the sheep for a short time and that destocking a pasture for 3 or 4 weeks was effective in breaking the worm cycle. We now know that larvae can survive on pasture for longer than that, especially where conditions are generally cooler and wetter. In general terms, the higher the rainfall and the cooler the conditions, the longer the larvae can survive in the pasture. 
“If a field/pasture/paddock is cropped or cut for hay or silage, worm larvae numbers are dramatically reduced.”

Effect of seasons on worm types

Species of worms change in predominance from the cooler months to the warmer ones. Drenches that may be effective against the cool season species may be less effective against the ones which predominate in the warmer seasons.

Reinfection

After dosing, sheep should be put onto dirty pasture to pick up resident worms to dilute the resistant worms that have survived dosing.

Mineral/vitamin deficiencies on your ground and in your flock and how this impacts on the sheep worm burden

Research has indicated that the supplementary feeding of certain minerals, where they are already deficient on your property, may increase the resistance of sheep to worms. Research has shown that the supplementary feeding of oats during a period of poor pasture growth (typically winter and sometimes early spring), when combined with high quality pasture management, can improve significantly the sheep’s resistance to worms.
Research has also shown that improved energy nutrition can increase a sheep’s “resilience” to worm infection, allowing animals to maintain growth rates and milk production even if they have a worm infection. When a pasture is in a period of poor growth, energy nutrition can be improved by the supplementary feeding of grains such as oats, barley and lupins. Note, however, that a sudden introduction of grain into their diet can kill sheep. Grains need to be introduced gradually.

Liver Fluke in sheep

There are two conditions that have to be met for sheep to be at risk of Liver Fluke Disease (fasciolosis). Firstly, they must graze an area that is constantly damp. Secondly, freshwater snails must be present in that area to act as intermediate hosts for the liver fluke.

What are the signs of liver fluke?

The signs of Liver Fluke Disease are weight loss and anaemia. In chronic cases, scouring often occurs (but not always) and the sheep suffers obvious abdominal pain and is reluctant to move. Infected sheep may also develop “bottle jaw” – a swelling under the bottom jaw. Unfortunately, in some cases, there are no obvious signs before the sudden death of the infected sheep.
“Liver Fluke Disease is more likely to occur in summer and early autumn.”
Drenching can be an effective means of preventing Liver Fluke Disease. Note, however, that most worm drenches do not contain a flukicide (ie a drench specifically for the treatment of liver fluke), so check the label to ensure that the drench you are using is registered as a treatment for liver fluke.
Drenching with a flukicide is typically carried out three times a year (late winter or early spring, summer and late autumn). Drenching more often than needed is expensive and may lead to drench resistance. Normally, drenching is only necessary for sheep that graze paddocks with fluke-prone (ie constantly moist) areas. 

Triclabendazole is highly effective at killing all stages of flukes responsible for acute fasciolosis. Drenched sheep should be moved to clean pasture or re-treated every three weeks for the next three months at least as prescribed by your veterinary surgeon.  Nitroxynil and oxyclosanide are less effective against immature flukes and should be used only in the treatment of subacute and chronic fasciolosis. Once again, treated sheep must be moved to clean pastures.  Improved nutrition is essential.

Draining or fencing off fluke-prone areas will help reduce the risk of liver fluke disease. Chemical control of snails in fluke-prone areas is generally a poor option. Snails reproduce very quickly and will repopulate treated areas. And the use of poisons so close to waterways is likely to be dangerous to the aquatic environment. For a small additional cost, you can check for the presence of liver fluke when you do a Worm Test.
websites used in the making of this post:
  • Drenching http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/webpages/cart-6396qk?open
  • http://www.fwi.co.uk/academy/article/126167/worms-in-sheep.html
  • organic http://www.skylinesfarm.com/parasitecontrol.htm
  • herbs for worming http://reedbird.com/articles/herbsfordeworming.html http://lavenderfleece.com/herbals.html
  • http://www.smallstock.info/tools/disease-nutrition/7424.htm
Jan 282012
 
hand woven willow heron sculpture

Willow cuttings available for sale from Fifesmallholder

  • Salix Viminalis – very fast growing and ideal for firewood etc.

  • Continental yellow

  • Zwarte Driebast

  • Flanders Red

  • Noire De villaine

  • Continental Purple

  • Brittany Green

Our willows can be used for different purposes 

 
 “there is a willow grows aslant the brook
that shows his hoar leaves in the glassy stream”
 
William Shakespeare, Hamlet
 

Benefits of willow

  • Properties of Willow 

    Willows will grow in a range of habitats and survives in most localities.  In soil of pH 6.0 – 8.0  Most soil types. Most topography.

     

    There are species of Willow, which are adapted to different conditions:

     

    S. alba – low lying conditions

    S. fragilis – river bank

    S. herbacea – mountains Scotland

    S. repens – colonises sand dunes

 
Willows are the fastest growing & highest yielding tree or shrub in Britain. When grown as Short Rotation Coppice they can produce as much as 10 to 15 tonnes of dry wood per hectare per year and often more on the better sites.
 
Farmers are now growing willow to supply power stations with a natural, renewable and carbon neutral source of energy. It is usually harvested on a 3 year rotation then chipped, dried and loaded into giant hoppers to be fed automatically into the boilers to produce electricity and/or heat.
 
For a smallholder or householder though, logs are more useful than woodchips. Known as the 5 year Coppice Rotation, a site is divided into 5 beds and 1 bed is harvested each year, providing a regular supply of firewood year on year.
 
Using this system, 500 plants on 750 sq m (less than a fifth of an Acre) can produce 1 Tonne of dry firewood every year.
 
To read more about firewood click here.

Planting willow

These plants are delivered as setts – unrooted cuttings.  Willows should be planted during the time when they are dormant, i.e. after the leaves have dropped and before the sap starts to rise again.
 
As they need to develop a good root system, before they can afford to develop leaves, willow cuttings should be planted between December and the beginning of April and willow rods should be in the ground by the beginning
of March.
 
They establish rapidly in any soft earth, free of weeds.  Soak them in water overnight, then plant them to about half their depth, coloured end pointing upwards. Cut back half the new growth in the winter after planting to make them bush out.
 
Planting willows link 
 
  • Healing

Country folk have been familiar with the healing properties of willow for a long time. They made an infusion from the bitter bark as a remedy for colds and fevers, and to treat inflammatory conditions such as rheumatism. Young willow twigs were also chewed to relieve pain. In the early nineteenth century modern science isolated the active ingredient responsible, salicylic acid, which was also found in the meadowsweet plant. From this the world’s first synthetic drug, acetylasylic acid, was developed and marketed as Aspirin, named after the old botanical name for meadowsweet, Spirea ulmaria.

  • Bee Fodder

Willow benefits pollinating insects in early spring. Willow plants when flowering produce both nectar and pollen. Females give only nectar, but male plants give both nectar and pollen. Planting a variety of willow types, will give an extended flowering season. The Salix Viminals often flowers in April, at the end of the period that is crucial to honey bee brood building time.
 
click here for more information 
 
  • Willow is a good supplementary feed for sheep and lambs, it also helps them cope/expel/resist worms.

 

Willow links with Scottish place names 

The Gaelic words for willow are shellach, or suil, and feature in Scottish place names such as Achnashellach in Ross-shire, Glensuileag in Inverness-shire and Corrieshalloch on Speyside. These names would have referred to both the presence of willow and the attendant industries utilising the willow’s gifts.

 

Willow folklore

 click here for some folklore 

Links

Jan 202012
 
grantown on spey 031

“It is a common myth sometimes believed by novice smallholders that sheep don’t need to be given water”

As with people, water is the most important “nutrient” that sheep need. How much they consume depends upon their age, and size, as well as temperature of the water and the amount of moisture in their feed. Sheep consuming wet grass or wet feeds (e.g. silage) won’t drink a lot of water because they are getting plenty of water from their feed. Conversely, they will drink more water if they are eating dry hay or dry, mature grass.

“Sheep don’t like to drink dirty water.”

Pregnant Ewe

For pregnant ewes, water intake increases by the third month of gestation, is doubled by the fifth month, and is greater for twin-bearing ewes than for ewes carrying a single foetus. A lack of water accompanied by a severe depression in feed intake predisposes ewes to all sorts of problems, namely unthriftiness, malnutrition and, possibly, pregnancy disease in the case of multiple bearing ewes. It is estimated that lactating ewes require 100 percent more water than non-lactating ewes.

Summer/Warm Weather

Sheep may consume 12 times more water in summer than in winter. Adequate intake of good-quality water is essential for ewes to excrete excess toxic substance such as oxalates, ammonia, and mineral salts.

How Much Does A Sheep Drink? 

 How much a sheep drinks depends on the sheeps growth stage, if she is lactating (producing milk for lambs), the ambient temperature and the moisture content of the feed they are eating.    

Daily Water Requirements

——————————————
Adult sheep 1-2 gallons or about 4 litres
Lactating ewes 2-3 gallons or up to 10 litres
Feeder lambs 1-2 gallons
Baby lambs 0.1-0.3 gallon or about 1 litre
——————————————

Temperature

Try to maintain water temperature above 35 F in winter and below 75 F in summer.

 Running Water

Sheep actually prefer to drink from running water rather than from still water . Running water is generally much healthier and less polluted than stagnant , still water .  Furthermore, sheep are afraid of water.  If they fall in, their coat of wool will soak up the water and pull them to the bottom. So they gravitate to water that is still. If the water is moving, the shepherd makes a dam that will cause the water to be quiet and still. Once that water is still, the sheep drink and are refreshed.

Health

Always keep clean drinking water available because sheep, unlike cattle, do not drink dirty water. If the water is not clean there will be a decline in the production of sheep. This will cause them to eat less, have trouble digesting food properly, be more likely to get digestive and metabolic problems.

Coccidiosis in sheep & goats

Illness such as coccidiosis can occur as a result of drinking water contaminated by sheep faeces or droppings.  This is a common disease of sheep and goats, especially when they are placed under stress:
  •  putting too many sheep and goats together
  • keeping sheep and goats in dirty, wet pens
  • sudden changing of feed
  • moving sheep and goats to a different location 
  • weaning (removing lambs/kids from their mothers).
It is an important disease because it leads to economic losses as a result of deaths, poor growth and treatment costs. It usually affects younger animals. The disease is most severe in
  •  lambs/kids 2 to 8 weeks of age
  • lambs/kids 2 to 3 weeks after weaning
  • adult sheep and goats moved to a new location or experiencing some other form of stress.

Kidney Stones In Rams

Having sufficient water also helps prevent the development of kidney stones in male sheep. Sheep and goats get sick by eating food or drinking water contaminated by the droppings.  It is also claimed that cider vinegar given regularly to stud males (tup/ram) will help prevent urinary calculi (stones).

Rain & Dew

When sheep feed on large amounts of new growth and there is precipitation (including dew, as sheep are dawn feeders), sheep need less water. When sheep are confined or are eating large amounts of hay, more water is typically needed. Sheep require clean water, and may refuse to drink water that is covered in scum or algae.

Winter & Snow

In the winter if there is snow, as long as it is not hard, sheep will eat enough of the snow to get all the water they will need.  However they do prefer warm water to cold water and may reduce their intake.  Drinking cold water slows the function of the rumen and can lead to loss of condition.   If you ever wonder why ewes are not producing enough milk for their lambs, don’t overlook the possibility that they’re not drinking enough water because it’s too cold.

Apple Cider Vinegar

Adding a little AC vinegar to the drinking water or storage tank will help to prevent algae growth, especially in the summer. ACV is a well-known water purifier, we add ACV every time we re-fill the water trough.  It also acts as a natural antibiotic, and we find it helps the sheep maintain their health in every season.
Cider vinegar helps maintain the correct pH in the body, which is probably one of the reasons it is so useful. Due to its potassium content, it is invaluable for all animals just before breeding, because potassium deficiencies cause blood vessel constriction, affecting the extremities and also it seems the cervix and uterus in the final stages of pregnancy; dystocia (difficult birth) is the result.
Apple cider vinegar can tarnish metal watering containers over time; only use it in plastic containers.

Garlic

 Do not add the raw garlic juice to the sheep’s watering trough. It will become rancid in a short time, additionally the natural oils in the garlic juice will rise to the top of the water and the rest of the juice will mix in the water. Both the juice and garlic oils are essential in treating parasites. Adding to water is not a recommended method.
Jan 042012
 
hand washing

The risk of cryptosporidium salmonella and E.coli on the smallholding

A smallholder can be very busy and multi-tasking is something you get used to.  It is therefore very easy to forget to wear protection, gloves, or wash your hands properly.  Especially at this time of year when it can be very muddy.

Your hands are permanently dirty from being outside, and can often have cuts or wounds from some mishap or other.  Or you are bottle feeding young lambs or hatched chics, and people (especially children) want to come and see them.  What is the risk in that?

The bacteria Escherichia coliand Salmonella and the protozoa Cryptosporidium are among the organisms that have the potential to cause serious disease that may be found in animal droppings and on contaminated surfaces around smallholdings.

What is cryptosporidium?

Cryptosporidium is a protozoan (single celled) parasite of human and animal importance, which if ingested, can cause an illness called cryptosporidiosis.  It can be transmitted through contact with soil, food, water or surfaces that have been contaminated with infected human or animal faeces. The most common symptom is watery diarrhoea, which can range from mild to severe. Cryptosporidiosis is most common in children aged between one and five years, but it can affect anyone. People with weak immune systems are likely to be most seriously affected.
Over 45 different species of animals including poultry, fish, reptiles, small mammals (rodents, dogs, and cats) and large mammals (including cattle and sheep) can become infected with Crytposporidium parvum.  The reservoir for this organism includes people, cattle, deer and many other species of animal.
Oocysts are shed in the faeces and can survive under very adverse environmental conditions. The oocysts are very resistant to disinfectants. People can re-infect themselves one or more times.  Human infection may be acquired by four main routes: from other people, from animals and their faeces, from untreated drinking water contaminated by either agricultural or human sewage sources, and from swimming in contaminated water. 
Cryptosporidiosis can be prevented by using good personal hygiene. Hands should be washed with soap after using bathroom facilities. Only clean or filtered water should be consumed, and food must be prepared properly.
“Individuals who work with animals should wear protective clothing, and washing hands after handling animals is essential.”

Farm animals at risk 

A number of different Cryptosporidium species infect animals. In humans, illness is mainly caused by Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis. In animals, illness is mainly caused by Cryptosporidium parvum.  
Young farm animals can also suffer from Cryptosporidium diarrhoea.”
 The disease in calves/lambs/kids
  •  One to four weeks old
  • Diarrhoea, anorexia, and weight loss
  • Often occurs with other diarrhoea-causing bacteria and/or viruses, or in animals that have a compromised immune system
  • Re-infection can cause relapses, chronic infection and death
  • Infected calves/lambs/kids pass the organism in their faecal material
Humans can become infected with Cryptosporidium parvum through exposure to young ruminants with diarrhoea. Take proper precautions when treating calves/lambs/kids with diarrhoea.
  •  Wear protective gloves
  • Wash hands
  • Clean the environment

What is E. coli?

 Escherichia coli (E. coli) are common bacteria which live in the intestines of warm blooded animals. There are certain forms, or strains, of E.coli which are normally found in the intestine of healthy people and animals without causing any ill effects. A number of E. coli strains cause illness but E. coli O157 is associated with more serious illness. For the majority of people the infection is usually self limited and clears within seven days, but children under five are vulnerable to more severe illness. Symptoms can range from mild through to severe diarrhoea, to a serious condition called haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) that affects the blood, kidneys and in severe cases, the central nervous system.

What is salmonella?

Salmonella is found in a range of food products, including meat, produce and eggs. Salmonellosis is an infection of animals and man caused by a group of bacteria called Salmonella. These can live in the digestive tract of a wide range of mammals including people and birds. Over 2,500 strains (serovars) of Salmonella are known most of which rarely cause disease. However certain strains, such as S.enteritidis and S.typhimurium, may cause human disease if, for example, foodstuffs become contaminated with animal faeces.
“Eggs from infected hens and milk from infected dairy herds may also contain salmonella.”
Infection may also follow contact with infected animals. It is usually fairly short-lived and often does not cause any obvious disease. However disease may occur with high temperature, diarrhoea and blood poisoning. In a few cases infected animals or people may carry certain strains of the bacteria for prolonged periods. 

Prevention

 Cryptosporidiosis is highly infectious so proper sanitation and good hygiene practices are important measures in the prevention of cryptosporidiosis.  Such measures include: 
  • washing hands thoroughly with soap (I prefer to use ant-bacterial) and warm water before eating or preparing food, after using the toilet, cleaning up after others with diarrhoea, after contact with domestic or farm animals
  • washing or peeling raw fruit and vegetables thoroughly before eating 
  • avoiding unpasteurised milk and fruit juices

Sanitiser hand gels

Reliance on sanitiser hand gels instead of hand washing is not effective in killing bugs such as E. coli O157 or Cryptosporidium. Visitors should be made aware that using sanitising gels is not a substitute for washing hands with soap and hot water and drying them, as gels may fail to remove contamination in the way that soap and running water can. However it is likely that using sanitising gels following handwashing with soap and water may provide extra benefit.

Handwashing 

 “Hand washing is the single most important prevention step in reducing transmission of gastrointestinal infections after handling animals and it’s crucial that hand washing in young children should be supervised, especially after touching or petting animals or their surroundings on a visit to a smallholding. ” 
There are five basic ways to manage diarrhoea and vomiting and prevent the spread of diseases:
  • Careful hand washing is the most important prevention measure that you can take. Wash hands thoroughly with soap and warm water and dry afterwards. Do not share towels.
  • Use gloves when handling soiled articles from ill people. Wash soiled clothing and bed linen on ‘hot cycle’.
  • If looking after someone with gastroenteritis, carefully disinfect toilet seats, flush handles, wash-hand basin taps and toilet door handles daily and after use. Use a bleach-based household cleaner, diluted according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
  • Maintain good personal hygiene and hygienic preparation and serving of food.
If you have gastroenteritis, don’t return to school or work until you have been symptom-free for 48 hours. Look what happened in the Archers.  Don’t visit patients in local hospitals and long-term care facilities. While many people tend to feel better sooner, illness can still be spread if they return to work or school within 48 hours since the last symptom.

Other tips for a safe smallholding visit include:

  • Don’t put hands on faces or fingers in mouths while petting animals or walking round the smallholding.
  • Don’t kiss animals nor allow children to put their faces close to animals.
  • Don’t eat or drink while touching animals or walking round the smallholding, including sweets, crisps or chewing gum.
  • Don’t eat anything that has fallen on the floor.
  • Only eat and drink in picnic or designated areas.
  • Remove and clean boots or shoes that might have become dirty and clean push-chair wheels.

Useful information

  •  A leaflet detailing advice for the public on avoiding infection on farm visits can be found on the HPA’s website 
  •  The Health and Safety Executive’s guidance for those running and visiting petting farms can be found on the HSE’s website 
  • Information sheet 
Nov 192011
 

Benefits of Cider Vinegar, Garlic, and Poultry Spice to a Smallholder

moulting chicken at fifesmallholder

As the light shortens and we come into autumn/winter some of my hens moult, and today I gave them some things that I feel will help them to replace their feathers, and maximise their health for the cold months ahead.  Lack of daylight and moulting means less eggs (energy goes into making new feathers), but I don’t mind a drop in egg production over the winter because I think it gives the hens a bit of a rest, and helps them to stay strong over the long dark, cold, damp days till spring.

Winter behaviour of chickens

The hens seem to stay in their sheds more over winter, and particularly during a cold spell when the ground is frozen or covered in snow.  They therefore have less access to minerals and food that they would normally consume whilst out free ranging in the field or woodland.

Cider Vinegar

Apple Cider Vinegar is an age-old product beloved by many traditional chicken keepers to promote all round health and vitality in poultry (and many other animals). 

What does it do?

  • Aids digestion of chickens

 helping to break down minerals and fats and assists the bird to assimilate proteins and convert food better.

  •  Lowers the Ph of the chicken’s digestive tract 

rendering it to be 90% less welcoming to Pathogens.

  •  Provides a natural source of Potassium and other important trace minerals

 Helps to improve fertility and general well-being.

  •  Depresses the growth of Algae in the chicken water drinker

 Use cider vinegar only in a plastic drinker.

  •  Helps clean the plumage of grease and old bloom, when used in baths.

It is therefore excellent for show birds.

  •  Clears respiratory tracts

  • Can also be used to treat minor wounds and skin irritations

At a dose of no more than 1 part to 10.

  • Cleans feeding and drinking equipment 

and is often sprayed into and around housing as a very effective fly and insect deterrent.

  • Will help chickens with stress 

which is one of the main contributors to their immune system lowering and letting in disease

How much cider vinegar do I use?

 Add to the drinking water at the rate of 5ml per litre of clean drinking water.  As a guide I would suggest 10ml of Apple Cider Vinegar per litre of fresh water – be careful not to add to much as it may stop the hens drinking which would be a problem.

*Caution*

“Apple cider vinegar (ACV) is not an alternative to regular worming. It has been shown to improve resistance to internal parasites but is no substitute. Many keepers use ACV to improve resistance to coccidosis in particular.”

What Is Coccidiosis?

Coccidiosis is a common parasitic disease of poultry which affects the digestive tract and is primarily found in chickens and turkeys. If not treated it can lead to death. The symptoms are:
  • Ruffled feathers.
  • Unthriftiness.
  • Head drawn back into shoulders.
  • A chilled appearance.
  • Diarrhoea which may have blood in it.

Causes of coccidiosis

Coccidiosis is caused by a protozoan parasite (coccidia).  Poultry are exposed to the protozoan parasite via their droppings, dirty drinkers and damp litter in their huts.  Coccidia thrives in damp conditions such as damp chicken litter and is found in chicken manure.  Coccidia can also be found in water that is not kept clean and free of chicken droppings.

Stress in chickens

Times of stress for a chicken may include:
  • Moving house
  • Introducing new birds or mixing up the pecking order
  • If snow falls on the ground (a stressful change in environment for chickens)
  • After a fright – e.g. fox or dog attack
  • After injury

What is the difference between cider vinegar I get in the supermarket and others?

The difference is that the ACV sold in the supermarket is filtered and pasturised to preserve the product and kill off bacteria. This also kills off the beneficial ‘good’ bacteria. The equine / animal feed ACV is unpasturised and unfiltered.

What about cider vinegar and worms?

Personally, I believe they help make the gut an unpleasant environment for worms but cannot replace a chemical wormer if you have a confirmed case of worms.  If in any doubt, if you don’t want to use a licensed wormer (Flubenvet) then do get a worm count done. As well as the health implications for your birds when not worming correctly, finding a worm inside an egg is unpleasant for you and your customers.  Check out this link for more info on worms and their treatment.
 

Poultry Spice 

Give your birds a boost in Spring or after the moult with this natural nutritional supplement plus extra minerals in a spice base. One teaspoonful to be given in the usual wet or dry mash for every 10 fowls. In cold weather a little more of the powder may be given. Specially recommended for improving all round condition and performance. Invaluable for rearing Poultry, Ducks, Geese, Turkeys and Game birds.

Poultry Spice contains minerals, powdered ginger, turmeric, fenugreek and aniseed. Click on the links to find out more about the health benefits of these spices to humans, and hopefully, our feathered friends.

Garlic

Garlic is supposed to keep the mites and lice away.
 
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